Primary Annotated Sources
Kissidhu, “Hiroshima bombing." YouTube. 3 Dec 2007. YouTube. 3 Dec 2007<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x9lwvImJqT0>.
This video interviewed the survivors of the atomic bomb. It also included many interesting and helpful facts about the atomic bomb. Like how the bomb kills in 3 waves. The first is a giant heat ball, the second is a shockwave on energy, and the last is nuclear fallout. We used this source to tell about the survivors of the atomic bomb, and how powerful it really is.
"President Truman's speech on the Atomic bomb." Youtube. 14 Jan 2008. Youtube. 17 Jan
We learned many facts about President Truman from this video. This video was a speech that president Truman gave after the bombing of Hiroshima. He stated that the U.S. would keep dropping bombs on Japan, until they surrendered. He also stated that we were grateful that the atomic bomb had been given to use, instead of our enemies.
“Admiral Chuichi Nagumo." 21 Jan 2008.
This is a photo of the Admiral Chuichi Nagumo. Chuichi Nagumo was the commander of Japans Pearl Harbor Striking force. He helped assemble and lead 30 warships complete with six aircraft carriers, 430 planes, and about 20 submarines. Without Chuichi’s help Japans attack on Pearl Harbor would have not been so successful. We used this on our website when talking about the U.S. entry into WWII.
“Bombed Hiroshima”. <http://students.umf.maine.edu/~donoghtp/hiroshima2.gif> Leslie R. Groves.
This is a photo of a city in Japan after the bombing on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This photo shows tremendous damages that every city took when in range of the bombs epicenter. This also shows us how powerful nuclear weapons are such as the atomic bomb. We used this photo when explaining the damage that the bomb did to Japan.
“Injured Japanese Victims” <www.thewe.cc/.../Japan/hiroshima_cover_up.html>.
This picture taught us a lot about how devastated the victims of Nagasaki and Hiroshima must have been. The picture clearly shows that anything within miles of the bomb’s epicenter would have been completely obliterated. We used this picture when describing the sheer power of the atomic bomb.
This is a picture of one of the most famous scientist ever, Albert Einstein. Albert Einstein developed most of the physics and self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction in the atomic bomb. He also helped lead many crewmembers during the Manhattan Project along with Robert Oppenheimer. Albert also wrote a letter to President Roosevelt explaining that he and a crew of scientist’s may be able to create an atomic bomb and end the war, and make America the most powerful country in the world. Without that letter the war might have taken millions of more lives. After the approval from Roosevelt they started the creation of the bomb. In the letter he also warned, that Germany may be creating a powerful bomb themselves. We used this when talking about before the bomb creation and what brought the idea to the U.S. to create an atomic bomb.
“Girl injured from the bomb”. <http://ocw.mit.edu/NR/rdonlyres/8493A34C-130D-477A-93EA-DEE42642748A/0/lect10_6.jpg.> Wayland Mayo.
This picture shows a woman’s dress strap pattern burnt onto and across her back. This shows the devastation that Japans civilians took during the attacks from the United States. This photo also shows the extensive care and treatment most the Japanese civilians must have had to survive after the droppings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We used this photo when talking about damages the atomic bombs took on Japans economy and civilians.
" The Fat Man" Atomic Archive. 8 Jan 2008. Atomic Archive. 10 Jan 2008 <http://www.atomicarchive.com/Photos/LBFM/images/SB58.jpg.>
This photo helped us understand the mass that bomb carried and why it was so destructive to Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This picture is amazing to us because it is so hard to understand how they can fit so much destruction in such a small space. We used this picture on my website when we are describing the Manhattan Project and when the bomb was being produced.
“Burnt Civilian”. <http://www.tamilnation.org/images/humanrights/hiroshima1.gif.> Wayland Mayo.
This is a picture of a middle age woman severely burnt receiving medical attention from a Japanese doctor. This photo was taken after the dropping of the “Little Boy” on Hiroshima. This is one of the 210,000 people who died during the Americans attempt to end WWII. We used this photo when talking about the lives lost during the droppings on Japan.
“Harry S. Truman”. <www.umbc.edu/prestige/images/people/truman.jpg.> Joe Papalia.
This is a picture of the thirty-third president of the United States Harry Truman. He held office during the atomic bomb creation and the dropping of the bomb on Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The decision to drop the bomb was in Truman's hands, which, he decided to drop it, hopefully saving thousands of American civilians and soldiers along with ending the war. This picture taught me how big of a role Truman played during the atomic bomb era. We used this picture when we are discussing the decision to drop the atomic bomb.
“Los Alamos”. <http://www.Entrepreneurialcity.blogsome.com/images/lanl.jpg.> National Archives and Records Administration.
After viewing this picture of the Manhattan Project lab in Los Alamos I learned how big the laboratory was for creating the atomic bomb. I also learned how it cost over 3 billion dollars to fund the creation and to run all the test of the dropping of the bomb. I also learned that the lab crew consisted of 3,000 amazing scientist. We did display this photo when talking about the test runs and the Manhattan Project.
“Robert J. Oppenheimer”. <www.atomicarchive.com/Images/bio/H07.jpg .> National Science Digital Library.
This is a picture of the famous scientist Robert Oppenheimer. He was invited to take over neutron calculations. Oppenheimer was later appointed the main director of the Manhattan Project, which helped lead America to the victory in the war. I also learned that he was considered the father of the atomic bomb. Another thing I learned about Robert is that he was the first one to write papers on the existence of black holes. We used this photo on our website when explaining the Manhattan Project and the people behind the bomb.
“The Mushroom Cloud” <http://wordpress.com/tag/chrysanthems.jpg> 10-8-7. Chrysanthems.
From this picture I learned about how big this explosion actually was. In the photo it shows the mushroom rising above the clouds. This picture helped us when we are describe just how devastating this bomb really was.
Einstein, Albert. Letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. August 2, 1939.
This source is a letter that Albert Einstein sent to President Roosevelt. Einstein sent this letter after Leo Szilard contacted him to tell him about the atomic bomb. In the letter, Einstein approved the creation of the bomb and the idea of using the bomb to end WWII. Although Einstein did not believe in the idea of war, he could not let the Nazis gain power of this weapon. We used this source when talking about the Manhattan project.
Smyth, Julie. "Pilot on atomic bombing of Hiroshima dies." The Orange County Register Friday, Nov. 2, 2007: New 9.
From this News Article we learned a lot about Paul Tibbets. He was the pilot of the Enola Gay, which was the plane that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. The plane was named after his mother, who he loved. Paul never thought that the atomic bomb was a mistake. He thought that it was the only way to end WWII, without risking millions of American Soldiers lives’. We used this Article in are website to explain how the Atomic Bomb saved millions of American Soldiers.
Secondary Annotated Sources
Langley, Andrew. Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Fire From the Sky. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Compass Point Books, 2006.
This book showed us how the dropping of the atomic bomb revolutionized the making of nuclear weapons around the world. In 1945 the United States was the only country to possess a nuclear weapon, but in 1949 the Soviet Union controlled one as well. This was the start of what is known as the “arms race.” Then in 1952 the United States produced the first hydrogen bomb, which was more powerful and had a more destructive explosion than the atomic bomb. But less than a year later the Soviet Union began making their own hydrogen bomb. By 1960, both sides were able to fire long distance missiles armed with nuclear warheads. A while longer both sides were threatening to use the nuclear weapons if the other side fired first. They had enough weapons to destroy Earth multiple times. This time was called mutual assured destruction, or “MAD.” This horrible threat of nuclear war loomed over the world for 45 years after WWI. One slip during this period would leave the world looking like Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Today in the world many countries all learned how to build their own nuclear weapons. China and France contain 400, India has 90, Israel has 100, Pakistan with 20, the United Kingdom has 200, Russia with 15,000, and the United States with 12,000. This makes over 30,000 nuclear weapons in the world today. Although the atomic bomb helped us defeat Japan, it may come back against us.
O’Neal, Michael. President Truman and the Atomic Bomb: Opposing viewpoints. San Diego: Green haven Press, Inc., 1949.
This book helped us realize why Harry S. Truman dropped the atomic bomb. Was it to save lives, impress the Soviets or because of diplomatic errors? A momentous question people ponder to this day, what if the United States didn’t drop the atomic bomb. How many people would of died from the war and how long would it have lasted? Maybe dropping the bomb saved many people’s lives, but will anyone ever know? Another thought is that Truman dropped the bomb because of Diplomatic errors. Such as the intelligences that Truman was given false information from army forces. Or did Truman just not give enough thought and dropped it over panic and stress that was put on him during the Manhattan Project and the war. Maybe if Truman thought about it more he would have not dropped the bomb and continued fighting in the war. Any decision that he could of made, would of left thousands of people disappointed in the decision. So there was really no right decision.
Stein, Conrad R. The Manhattan Project. Chicago: Children’s Press, 1993.
From this source we learned about the thought process that went into the making of the atomic bomb. Splitting atoms is a vital part of constructing the atomic bomb. An atom can only be split if a neutron from another atom hits the nucleus of the first atom. Each atom creates a tiny spark when split. After one atom splits its neutron hits another atom’s nucleus causing a chain reaction called nuclear fission. Leo Szilard, physicist interested in nuclear fission and Edward Teller, a Hungarian physicist met Albert Einstein at his home in Long Island. After his meeting with the two physicists, Einstein wrote a letter to President Roosevelt, stating how destructive the atomic bomb is and how it could help the U.S. win the battle against Japan. Upon reading this letter, Roosevelt granted Szilard and Teller some money to start experimenting with nuclear fission, thus creating the Manhattan Project. These discoveries led to Japan compromising with the U.S. and surrendering after their conflict during World War II.
Thorpe, Charles. Oppenheimer: The Tragic Intellect. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 2006.
This book taught us about the atomic bomb and how it affected Albert Einstein’s and Robert Oppenheimer’s life after the atomic bomb was dropped and how hard it was for them to get on with their lives. Albert Einstein said, “This is the only mistake I’ve ever made in my life” after the bombing on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Einstein also stated, “This experience helped me in no positive ways.” He felt that it was his faults that now over 200,000 people were dead. He also claimed that writing that letter to Truman was a huge mistake. On the other hand Oppenheimer was scared to be seen in public, so he hired people to pose as him to distract the media. John Vashon, a photographer, said that, “I wonder of all the Oppenheimer’s I’ve seen, which is the real one?” Later, in 1964 Oppenheimer returned to Alamos, New Mexico and gave a speech on his life experiences after the atomic bomb. After the bomb dropping Oppenheimer’s left wing political views were strained and his relationship with senior figures in the physics department at Berkley. The bomb was considered a great idea until the effect happened.
Barlow, Jeffrey G. and George W.S. Kuhn. “Nuclear Weapons.” The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: World Book Inc., 1999.
From this article we learned about the two atomic bombs that hit Japan during World War II. The bomb that hit Hiroshima was a gun-type fission bomb called “Little Boy.” A B-29 plane dropped this bomb. The explosion of the bomb does not occur until the bomb is approximately 1,850 feet above the ground. Exploding the bomb this high up causes the explosion to be bigger and the radiation spreads farther. The bomb that hit Nagasaki was an implosion-type fission bomb named “Fat Man.” This atomic bombs detonation is caused by an explosive crushing a hollow sphere of plutonium in a core made of chemical element.
Garmon, Lucille B. “Manhattan Project.” The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: World Book Inc., 1999.
This article supplied us with information about the Manhattan Project. The Manhattan Project is a nickname for an organization called the Corps of Engineers’ Manhattan Engineer District. This agency, created by the U.S. in 1942, was designated the job of finding a way to develop an atomic bomb. The thought process of this task began in 1939. J. Robert Oppenheimer played a major role in the construction of the atomic bomb. He was the director of the design and creation of the bomb. On July 16, 1945 the first atomic bomb was successfully exploded near Alamogordo, New Mexico.
Hamby, Alonzo L. “Truman, Harry S.” The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: World Book Inc., 1999.
This article provided us with facts about the role Harry S. Truman played in the dropping of the atomic bombs in World War II. Truman became the 33rd President of the United States of America after Franklin D. Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945. Less than a month later, Germany surrendered on May 7. Truman also ordered Japan to surrender, but they resisted. This conflict between the U.S. and Japan forced the U.S. to drop two atomic bombs onto Japan. The first bomb struck Hiroshima on August 6 killing 60,000 people. The second bomb hit Nagasaki three days later killing 150,000 people. On August 14, 1945, a few days after the atomic bombs were released; Japan compromised with the U.S. and surrendered.
Pais, Abraham. “Einstein, Albert.” The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago World Book Inc., 1989.
This article helped us understand more on the role that Albert Einstein played in the making of the atomic bomb and how he influenced the making of it. Einstein was one of the fathers of the nuclear age. With his famous equation E=mc2 (energy equals mass times the velocity of light squared), which helped the making of the first atomic bomb and became a foundation stone in the development of nuclear energy. He developed this theory through deep philosophical thought and complex math. Then on August 2, 1939, Einstein wrote a letter to the U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, explaining that he and a group of scientist may be able to build an atomic bomb. He then asked for governmental help for the study of nuclear energy. He also warned the president that Germany might be trying to create their own. His letter helped setup the path that led to the production and the dropping of the atomic bomb. Albert Einstein was a momentous reason the U.S. was able to solve the conflict against Japan.
Skun, George. “Nuclear Weapons.” The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: World Book Inc., 2005.
After reading this section on nuclear weapons we understand the two different types of atomic bombs. The two types are called a gun-type fission and implosion-type fission bomb. The differences between the two are that the gun-type fission bomb explodes out and can cover more ground but is less effective. Unlike the gun-type bomb the implosions-type fission bomb is that it implosions when it hits and has less range, but way more destructive. The gun-type bomb was the first bomb dropped, which hit Hiroshima which was called “Little Boy.” The bomb was dropped from 3,000 ft and killed 60,000 people. The implosion-type bomb was dropped second on Nagasaki and killed 160,000 people. The centers of the bombs were filled with chemical elements and had plutonium outside. Both these bombs helped end the conflict of Japan refusing to surrender to the U.S.
“A Study of the Atomic Bomb and World War II.” Enola Gay. 2001. MidCoastMarketing.14Oct2007<http://www.theenolagay.com/study.html>.
During the conflict between Japan and the U.S. Harry Truman made the decision to release the atomic bomb onto Japan forcing them to compromise with the U.S. and surrender. We learned from this website why Truman decided to drop the atomic bomb. Upon receiving presidency, Truman was informed about the secret agency called the Manhattan Project trying to construct an atomic bomb. He was not informed however, about the decision he would have to make. Truman made this conclusion because he thought that if he did not drop the bomb, thousands of more lives would have been lost. He also knew that Germany was making an atomic bomb and he did not want Germany to hit them with their bomb first. Winston Churchill the British Prime Minister agreed with Truman’s decision by saying, “the decision whether or not to use the atomic bomb…was never even an issue.”
Carson, Mark. “World War 2 commemoration.” Effects of the Atomic Bomb. 06 October 2007<http://www.grolier.com/wwII/wwII.html>
This source helped us understand effects of nuclear weapons have on people such as the atomic bomb. The devastation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki resulted from three main types of effects: blast, thermal radiation and nuclear radiation. But only one of these is significant for chemical high explosives. The blast effect of an atomic bomb is similar to that of a conventional explosive but more intense and farther reaching Thermal Radiation causes serious burns or exposed parts of the body and may ignite fires. Nuclear Radiation, which results from neutrons, and gamma rays- associated with fission, causes death and injure as a result of damage to living tissue. But among the survivors of attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki equal numbers of injuries came from blast and thermal radiation but less from nuclear radiation. These can spread for more than one mile.
Dannen, Gene. “Atomic Bomb: Decision.” 09 August 2003. 6 October 2007<http://www.dannen.com/decision/2>
This website provided us with valuable information on the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. At the beginning of WWII bombing civilians was considered a barbaric act. Then on May 10-11 1945 the Target committee met with Robert Oppenheimer to decide what was the best way to use the gadget (atomic bomb). On June 11, 1945 a seven-man panel of scientist urged that the bomb should be demonstrated before the eyes of the United Nations on a dessert or Barren Island. But on the 16th of June 1945 scientist found “no acceptable alternative to direct military use.” Then on June 27, 1945 Ralph A. Bard considered the U.S. a great humanitarian nation. So on July 25, 1945 Truman told his diary that the bomb could be dropped on “purely military” targets so that women and children are not targets. Then on July 25, 1945 the bombing order issued to General Spattz that cities are targets. So on August 6, 1945 General Grover informed Oppenheimer of the Hiroshima bombing over the telephone. Three days later on Truman’s radio speech he told everyone Hiroshima was a “military base.” The bomb was then dropped and killed 60,000 people.
Lee, R.E and Wille, S. “Boeing B29 49 MO Super fortress.”Enola Gay. 01 March, 2001. National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution. 9 Oct 2007<http://www.nasm.si.edu/research/aero/aircraft/boeing_b29.htm>.
This website provided us with information about the Boeing B-29 Super fortress planes that dropped two atomic bombs during World War II. These planes had propellers and were the most advanced planes to fly during World War II. Enola Gay was the name of the plane that dropped the atomic bomb. “Little Boy” on Hiroshima. The pilot of this plane was Colonel Paul W. Tibbets Jr. The bomb was released on August 6, 1945. Three days later, another Boeing B-29 Super fortress named “Bockscar” dropped the atomic bomb “Fat Man” on Nagasaki. Major Charles W. Sweeney piloted the Bockscar. These planes dropping the atomic bomb onto Japan ending their conflict with the U.S.
Long, Doug. “Hiroshima: Was It Absolutely Necessary?” The Ethical Spectacle.14Oct, 2007<http://www.spectacle.org/696/long.html>
This website provided us with information as to whether or not it was a good idea to drop the atomic bomb onto Japan. Many people believe that if we didn’t drop the bomb we still would have won the war and less blood would have been shed. Even if we were losing the battle we had the bomb as a last resort. Dwight D. Eisenhower said, “It wasn’t necessary to hit them with that awful thing.” On the other hand Harry Truman and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill believed that releasing the atomic bomb was the only way to avoid a Japanese invasion. Although it is not factually proven, it seems that more people think that the U.S should have at least tried to win the war without the atomic bomb.
“Manhattan Project.” 05 October 2007. 06 October 2007.<http://en.wikipedia.org/WWII/Manhattan_Project>
This source provided us with valuable information on the Manhattan Project. This project was an undercover project to develop the first nuclear weapon, which took place in WWII. The countries that developed the project were the U.S., United Kingdom and Canada. This was designated at the Manhattan Engineer District (MED). Robert Oppenheimer, a famous scientist, directed this. Oppenheimer took control of the uranium research from the National Bureau of Standards. The project heads began to accelerate the bomb project under the OSRD. He and Arthur Compton organized the Metallurgical Laboratory in early 1942 to study plutonium and fission piles along with fast neutrons calculations. They also worked on the problems of neutron diffusion and hydrodynamics in the bomb. This helped the bomb to reach its full potential and end the conflict of Japan and the U.S.
"Pearl Harbor." World War II History Info. 2007. Interesting.com. 10 Jan 2008
This website provided us with information about how the conflict started between the U.S. and Japan. On December 7, 1941 Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in Oahu, Hawaii. The mastermind behind this attack was Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto. The reason for this Japanese attack was because of the United States conquest in the east. On December 11, 1941 Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S. Pearl Harbor is the reason why the United States of America became involved in World War II.
“People and Discoveries.” J. Robert Oppenheimer. 1998. WGBH. 8 Oct 2007<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/baoppe.html>.
We understood from this website the influence J. Robert Oppenheimer had on the creation of the atomic bomb. Robert Oppenheimer was a graduate from Harvard and obtained his PhD in Germany. During June of 1942, Oppenheimer was declared the director of the Manhattan Project. He gathered great physicists from all over the world and discussed how they would find a way to make the dream of an atomic bomb, a reality. Oppenheimer experienced the first explosion of an atomic bomb on July 16, 1945, in New Mexico. The conflict between Japan and the U.S. resulted in a compromise because of Oppenheimer’s useful, but destructive invention.
“The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.” The Atomic Bomb Website.2006.vce.com.14Oct, 2007<http://www.vce.com/hironaga.html>.
This website supplied us with facts on what happens immediately after the atomic bomb explodes. On August 6, 1945 a Boeing B-29 Super fortress plane dropped an atomic bomb named “Little Boy” onto Hiroshima, Japan. Three days later, another B-29 plane was headed towards Kokura, its primary target, but changed course towards Nagasaki, its secondary target because of the smoke engulfing Kokura. 60,000 of Nagasaki’s 90,000 buildings were destroyed and 140,000 people were killed. When the atomic bomb first explodes, a flash of light brighter than the sun that has a temperature of tens of millions of degrees occurs. The explosion also releases gamma rays and neutrons, which is what makes the atomic bomb so deadly. The radiation enters the victim’s blood contaminating it. The blood is later pumped into vital organs that become infected from the radiation in the blood.
Tibbets, Prig Gen Paul. “Enola Gay B-29.” The Enola Gay. 09 June 1994. 6 October 2007. <http://www.theenolagay.com/plane.html>
This source helped us understand the features and historical background on the Enola Gay, the plane that dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. The Enola Gay was manufactured by the Boeing Aircraft Company and was worked on by thousands of workers. It got its name after the pilot’s mom. The pilot was Paul Tibbets. Then on May 18, 1945 Glenn L. Martin Company delivered it to the U.S. Army Air Forces. The first atomic bomb test was taken place at Los Alamos on July 7, 1945. The Enola’s HP was 2,200 hp/engine, its wingspan is 141ft., and was 29ft. 7in. tall. The propellers consist of 4 blades each at the length of 16ft. 7in. The Enola Gay can reach up to 360mph and can hold a crew of 12. The bomb that was held and dropped from this plane led to the compromise of Japan surrendering to America.
Sullivan, Walter. “New Atom Bomb Data Hint Greater Radiation Risk.” The New York Times, 16May, 1981.
From this article we learned about the affects the radiation from the atomic bomb had on the people who were exposed to it. The gamma rays and fast moving neutrons in the radiation gave the victims cancer. Many scientists believe that the neutrons have a lot more affect on those who are exposed than the gamma rays. It is also said that because of the special design the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima had, it supplied more radiation than the atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki. We cannot see if this hypothesis is correct because of the fact that those were the only two atomic bombs ever to be used in battle. The collision of the neutrons on body tissues is many times greater than the collision of the gamma rays on body tissue.